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Process and Issues

THE PROCESS

 In order to ensure the sustainability and continuity of the program the following 6 stages will be accomplished.

1) Study visits to Jordan; gathering, motivating and training the team of Jordanian stakeholders and data collection and best practices exchanges

 

Study visits ensured a strong partnership of the ICCSS and Jordan stakeholders. The project development make the Jordan stakeholders the main beneficiaries and owners of the project. The ICCSS and other international stakeholders have acted as supporters. They fully cooperated with Jordan stakeholders who get convinced that through their work they can improve the situation in their own country.

 

Study visits included collection of relevant information, sharing best practices and capacity building, conduct training session and exchanges.

2) gathering international stakeholders to the project

 

The project, in order to ensure a high level of international expertise and gain recognition on regional and international areas, has been developed with a number of international stakeholders. This allowed to create and share unique expertise in chemical security and establishing a sound international cooperation with the Jordan stakeholders. The following organizations will be invited:

  • Chemical security in military area (NATO)
  • EU Centres of Excellence (EU COE), including regional centre in Jordan;
  • Chemical industry expertise in chemical safety and security
  • Project management and continuity
  • Expertise of working in Jordan (OPCW)
  • Experience on chemical security (INTERPOL)
  • Expertise on confidence building measures (OSCE)
  • UNSCR 1540 Committee and international expertise to implement UNSCR 1540;
  • Environmental security

 

The gathering of the international stakeholders was conducted via e-mail exchanges, chats and social media, and participation in the Seminars, in Warsaw and in Amman.

WARSAW-AMMAN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR IN WARSAW – 20-21 September, 2018, proceeded by training on 18-19 September, 2018

 

Warsaw-Amman Training and Seminar were prepared primarily by the ICCSS and core team of Jordan stakeholders, who suggest topics for consideration. There were over 60 participants from 16 countries and INTERPOL and OSCE. There were 21 Jordanian representatives from all the key institutions engaged in CBRN issues, with an emphasis on chemical security.

 

The core purpose of the Warsaw training and Seminar was to enhance the capacity of Jordan stakeholders on matters of chemical safety and security. In order to move forward with the project, the seminar defined content and partners in a gap analysis as well as identified the priority areas that need to be addressed urgently.

 

Assistance and protection against CW and preparedness to respond against chemical accidents were raised. National legislation and international regulations on CW prohibition and chemical security were presented. The seminar demonstrated a broad overview of relevant CBRN capacities and competences in Jordan.

 

The core understanding of the Training and the Seminar was the readiness of the Jordan partners and the ICCSS, to use the project to promote Jordan as a regional hub for chemical safety and security and the development of the Joint CBRN Training Facility in Amman as a regional centre for chemical safety and security.

GAP ANALYSIS - Preparation and writing of the document on chemical security gaps and chemical security confidence building measures in the Middle East

 

After the successful preparations, gathering stakeholders, discussions and background training, during the first seminar in Warsaw, and obtaining relevant data the next step: preparation of and writing of the document on chemical security gaps and chemical safety and security confidence building measures in the Middles East will be initiated.

 

It will be a process in which all relevant stakeholders are engaged and there will be a constant flow and exchange of information. A two way communication in verifying the priority areas between Jordan stakeholders and the group of international experts, under the ICCSS supervision, was very effective in preparation of the respective document.

 

The biggest advantage of this project is that it was the Jordan stakeholders who present the topics they believe to be priorities for their country. The group of international experts assist in the analysis and help Jordan stakeholders to identify their chemical safety and security gaps.

 

While critical in helping identify chemical security gaps the document shall offer a set of chemical security confidence building measures to assist Jordan and countries in the region in making important, practical decisions about how to address those gaps.

 

The gap analysis includes the following areas:

 

Chemicals:

  • Lists of sensitive chemicals in the national legislations
  • Assembly of regulations governing chemicals in production and trade, licensing, registering, control, authorization regimes in listed chemicals
  • Authorities responsible for enforcement
  • Resolutions in the regional arrangements pertaining to chemical safety and security

 

National level

  • Core principles for national chemical safety and security system
  • Identification (hazard based, risk based, catch all) of toxic chemicals
  • Enforcement and verification, penalization
  • Identified topics of utmost concern specific to Jordan (and region)
  • A list of essential national regulations
  • Awareness of chemical hazards in governmental agencies: Police, firefighters, customs
  • Rules and regulations governing management of consequences of chemicals accidents);.
  • The main areas of the gap analysis will include:
  • Roster of national experts, selected on their demonstrated competences and skills, available for supporting other countries in the region to combat chemical threats;

 

International level:

  • international organisations capacities that monitors the implementation of legal instruments in the chemical field;
  • Inventory of featured chemical safety programs offered by different foreign entities
  • Training to protect and secure chemical material and investigate on chemical incidents (forensic context);
  • Regulatory assistance and implementation of legal instruments to fight against the production and trafficking of chemical agents;
  • Coaching and mentoring CBRN managers in order to coordinate and synchronise resources;
  • Communication and coordination among chemical stakeholders to prevent misuse of chemicals

GAP ANALYSIS Conclusions and Recommendation

  1. GENERAL ISSUES: In the process of the development and implementation of chemical safety and security in Jordan the following leading issues were identified to support the project implementation:
  • Establishment of the National Chemical Security Expert Team;
  • Introducing monitoring and control of unauthorized access to hazardous chemicals during production and use of hazardous chemicals in the industry and agricultural complex of Jordan
  • Need to cover relevant issues on public health
  • Need to include the issues of environmental security;
  • Arrangements for security in transportation of hazardous chemical substances (HCS)
  • Issues with arranging the circulation of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, and precursors
  • Infrastructure and technical capabilities for analysis of hazardous chemical substances
  • Strengthen the national system of response to chemical threats
  • Inclusion of Chemical safety and security at educational and R&D institutions

ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED FURTHER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF JORDAN AS A REGIONAL HUB FOR CHEMICAL SAFETY AND SECURITY

 

The report recommends the development of Jordan as a regional hub for chemical safety and security, including introducing the regional road map chemical safety and security and the introduction of chemical safety and security confidence building measures for the Middle East. These measures will upgrade security procedures and practices in the fields of producing, transporting and marketing chemicals, materials and technologies of dual use, and initiate regional cooperation to mitigate chemical threats.

 

The development of Jordan as a regional hub will seek to improve coordination between relevant regional entities, national authorities, law enforcement agencies and other stakeholders on improving the border security to prevent illegal movement and transport of chemicals. It will improve national potential to respond to attacks with improvised chemical devices, and enhance a culture of chemical security among the relevant Jordan and regional authorities. It will seek to improve the cross-border cooperation and exchanges. It will also focus on the provision of assistance to Jordan and countries of the region in establishing a credible and sustainable system of border and chemical security culture, which can lead to significant improvements in the overall effectiveness of securing dangerous chemical material, their means of transport and associated facilities.

 

The issues preliminary identified and presented above will require a coordinated and comprehensive consideration within the following measures:

  1. Introducing a national regulatory framework (legal and administrative) system for chemical security to response to reduce chemical threats
  2. Arranging a proper level of national chemical safety and security
  3. Furthering international cooperation

 

Effective national chemical safety and security and timely prevention and response to chemical threats requires harmonization with the UNSCR 1540 (2004) and Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the European regulations and practical implementation of the relevant international chemical conventions, including Rotterdam, Basel, Stockholm Conventions, Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), and introduction of efficient control and monitoring mechanisms in the national chemical safety and security system.

 

  1. To include the industrial and agricultural complex and environmental protection

 

In order to reduce the unauthorized access to precursors and prevent production of counterfeit explosive mixtures, national regulations should be introduced to take into consideration (be harmonized) with the UN and European regulations.

 

  1. On transportation of hazardous chemical substances (HCS)
    1. Continue work on harmonization of the Jordan legislation with international norms, especially the UN and EU;
    2. To counter subversions and terrorist acts, all the HCS transportation stakeholders should continuously develop and implement special administrative actions, improve the mechanism of information exchange with competent authorities on threats, and take adequate action for physical protection of the transport infrastructure and cargoes.
    3. Study the experience of foreign countries and take action on cybersecurity and protection of information in Jordan's systems which manage the transport infrastructure elements.
    4. Recommend that the stakeholders responsible for transportation should implement advanced technologies to ensure transportation safety, specifically transportation means management and control systems, modern communication and telecommunication means, sensors and means of countering unauthorized intrusions.
    5. Develop a mechanism for operational involvement of researchers from chemical and branch research institutions for provision of consultative assistance in the case of HCS related emergencies.
    6. Introduce training of the target audience to study advanced practices and exchange experience on implementation of safety measures related to HCS transportation and accident response.

TRAINING FRAMEWORK FOR CHEMICAL SECURITY AT THE JOINT CBRN TRAINING FACILITY IN AMMAN

INTRODUCTION

  1. An effective chemical safety and security culture can result in a significant increase in the effectiveness of the safety and security of chemical material and associated facilities, storage, transport and use of toxic chemicals.
  2. The development of the Training Framework For Chemical Security at the Joint CBRN Training Facility in Amman will focus on promoting capacity-building for safe and secure use of chemistry in research, development, storage, production, use and transportation of toxic chemicals.
  3. The Training Framework will provide a basic awareness and understanding of chemical safety and security culture and practices. The course will give insight into the relevant international and national instruments that impact the chemical safety and security culture.
  4. The Training Framework is intended to promote the goals of UNSCR 1540 (1540), the Chemical Weapons Convention and will provide continuity to the OPCW’s focus on promoting national capacity-building for research, development, storage, production, and safe use of chemicals for purposes not prohibited by the Convention.
  5. The course is intended for Participants who are, or who will be, associated with the implementation or training in their home countries in the broad areas of chemical safety and security, including the implementation of the relevant international obligations, including European Union.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

  1. The Training Framework will train the trainers.
  2. The Training Framework will provide the participants with necessary know-how on procedures and practices in chemical safety and security.
  3. Training on the proper techniques and practices in the areas of chemical safety and security will be offered followed by discussions.
  4. The Training Framework aims to improve Participant’s knowledge and experience in the prevention of, preparedness for and response to a misuse of toxic chemicals.

THE EXPECTED RESULTS OF THE TRAINING FRAMEWORK

  1. The Training Framework will bring more national institutions, organizations and stakeholders to participate in development of chemical safety and security issues. The Training Framework will assist to improve national capabilities in the prevention of, preparedness for and response to a misuse of toxic chemicals and provision of guidance and assistance to help establish chemical security culture.
  2. The Training Framework will assist to build collaborative frameworks to address both national priorities in chemical safety and security as well as the implementation of CWC and UNSCR 1540 (2004).
  3. The Training Framework will further develop concepts of the training and education scheme for rising awareness, teaching principles, required training skills and know-how and best practices transfer in areas of chemical safety and security, and will trigger training curricula preparation for specialized courses.
  4. The Training Framework will increase awareness of Participants of requirements and best practices in chemical safety and security;
  5. There will be a broad dissemination of best practices in chemical safety and security among Participants and their industries and other stakeholders; and
  6. There will be a broad dissemination of training materials for National Authorities, scientists, laboratory managers, and chemical industry on best practices in chemical security and chemical safety.

TRAINING FRAMEWORK ORGANISATION AND PARTICIPATION

  1. The Training Framework is organised by the Joint CBRN Training Facility in Amman and the International Centre for Chemical Safety and Security (ICCSS) in Warsaw, and in cooperation with Vistula University in Warsaw
  2. The Training Framework will involve lectures, presentations and practical training from different national and international agencies engaged in developing and implementing measures to strengthen safety and security at chemical facilities, as well as representatives from chemical industry and from international organisations capable of providing advice in the areas of facility and transportation security.
  3. The Training Framework is open to the national authorities and government officials from other relevant ministries and agencies, representatives of the chemical industry and scientific communities, international organisations, agencies and relevant NGOs engaged in developing and implementing measures to strengthen safety and security at chemical facilities and transportation security.
  4. The Training Framework will be conducted in English and Arabic. All the relevant documents and supporting materials should be translated in advice and professional interpreters should be provided for the course.

RELEVANCE OF THE TRAINING FRAMEWORK TO THE ACTIVITIES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS and the CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION

  1. The Training Framework responds to activities by international organisations which provide assistance for countries in need for expertise and material support to sound management of chemical threats;
  2. The Training Framework will also will create an opportunity for national entities to join a network of international cooperation in the safe and secure handling of chemical agents, including toxic chemicals which engages all the stakeholders, including governments, international organisations, research centres and companies.
  3. The Training Framework will assist the efforts of the international organisations to promote higher national and industry standards and practices for the safe and secure handling of chemical agents, including those on preventing their unauthorised access and misuse.
  4. The Training Framework will assist the development of the concept how to efficiently assist to accomplish the goals of CW prohibition and work of the OPCW in relation to the national implementation, assistance and protection against chemical weapons.
  5. The Training Framework will assist to develop guidance how the requirements for chemical safety and security should be incorporated into future national legal and administrative regulations and operational provisions, as well as under international technical assistance programmes, including those by the OPCW under Article VII (Support for National Implementation) and Article X (Assistance and Protection) of the Convention

SUSTAINABILITY

  1. The sustainability of the results of the Training Framework will require that its outcomes will eventually be incorporated into the permanent background course on chemical safety and security developed for the relevant stakeholders.
  2. Sustainability will also be enhanced by continuing contacts with the participants and relevant national agencies to ensure sustainability of Training Framework.
  3. The Training Framework will continue to strengthen national networks of chemical safety and security officers.
  4. It will be ensured that materials and other resources will be are available to the relevant authorities and officers who continue to provide trainings at their institutions.

TABLE-TOP EXERCISE (TTX) - ENHANCING SECURE MOVEMENT OF CHEMICALS THROUGH BORDERS AMONG THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

Introduction

This exercise is a core element of the process of developing the coordination among the Jordanian partners and international/neighboring entities with the focus on preventing misuse of toxic chemicals in transborder context. Therefore the Table Top Exercise (TTX) will test and demonstrate the readiness of Jordan stakeholder to respond to chemical threats and to cooperate with the international partners.

 

It is necessary to remember however that the field of this exercise is only one among the many where terrorism can and should be tackled. The ongoing efforts in the other areas like: education, industry protection, accident preparedness and victims counselling are equally important.

Objectives

In the case of an act of terrorist nature against targets within chemical industry:

  • To develop Jordan capacity and role in responding to incidents where chemicals have been used as terrorists tools
  • To develop Jordan organizational and legal stance
  • To develop modes of operation
  • To develop and promote international cooperation
  • To practice a cooperation between industrial and political institutions
  • To gain and share organizational experience

Introduction – policy drivers and leading assumptions

The uncontrolled spread of harmful chemicals represents a threat to national and international stability and security. There is an urgent need for countries to undertake efforts to enhance and expand our efforts to introduce effective national controls of chemicals. An essential component of these efforts should be collaboration of partners to prevent in justified cases from entering harmful chemicals into the territory through borders at sea, in the air, and on land. The goal is to work in concert, employing their national capabilities to develop a broad range of legal, diplomatic, economic, and other tools to prevent shipments of such items.

 

In certain regional setting legislation and cooperation is aimed at putting into effect preparedness for accidental or deliberate releases of chemicals and for mitigating the effects of such release have acquired a trans-border dimension.

 

Central to these efforts is a proactive schedule of Table Top Exercise (TTX). TTX will enhance the ability of partners to prevent situations concerning of suspicious transfers chemicals to be used as explosives, including Acetone, or for chemical weapons production and conduct joint operations when and where the situation arises, and will demonstrate our resolve and commitment to stem the suspicious trade or flow of such materials.

 

The TTX is intended to contribute to the wider efforts to address the danger that non-State actors including terrorists may use CBRN weapons/materials. Its specific focus is on the prevention and response to illegal movement of chemicals. This should lead to enhancement of the chemical security culture in Jordan and to assist national stakeholders in preventing the risks associated with accidental or deliberate releases of chemicals, as well as to promote regional/trans-border cooperation in response to incidents involving such events. It will also contribute to increased preparedness against malicious uses of chemicals and against the growing risks associated with terrorism.

 

This document presents goals, objectives and all details necessary to carry on the Jordan project’s TTX.

 

It is necessary to remember however that the field of this exercise is only one among the many where terrorism can and should be tackled. The ongoing efforts in the other areas like: education, industry protection, accident preparedness and victims counseling are equally important.

 

The TTX results and lessons learnt are intended to create a template for future training in response to the conjoined occurrence of terrorism and the release/malicious use of chemicals, which can be propagated in other countries of the region.

Methodology of table-top exercise

Among the different elements in the process of development of national response to misuse of chemicals, the table top exercise (TTX) occupies a pivotal role. It enables assessment of capability after a partial and/or complete preparation and training programs, by evaluating that knowledge, proficiency and adequacy of practices, procedures, emergency plans, communications and critical thinking and decisions processes are supportive of timely and responsive chemical safety and security actions. The TTX’s utility extends beyond the local Industry and is inclusive of state, public and other private sector entities were their roles, responsibilities, available resources and capabilities are aligned as an integrated whole. In this regard the TTX is tied to each of the different participant groups and their respective training modules. It allows not only the assessment of knowledge acquired by specific groups but also how the entire community whether local or professional, and its acquired knowledge interacts as a well coordinated whole to avoid risks and respond to chemical safety and security incidents. The TTX requires preparation time and resources by both the host and the participants therefore commitment is essential. The successful TTX has a well planned and relevant scenario, attainable goals and objectives, well informed assumptions, enthusiastic participants, a skilled facilitator and evaluation team and a strong emphasis on the evaluation and the post-exercise processes.

 

The core of methodology is careful, multiple step by step planning. The TTX planning begins with the introductory/preplanning stage by documenting preliminary information such as basic reasoning for the exercise, general goals and expectations with the exercise briefly described. Additionally exercise Team Leader and a small core management team is established to support initial phase of exercise’s preparation. The TTX preparation development is implemented through a series of planning meetings, starting with Concept and

 

Objectives Meeting establishing TTX Exercise Management Team (EMT), through few working meetings up to Final Planning Meeting:

  • assignment of the roles and responsibilities for the EMT members and TTX participants,
  • development of the exercise scenario,
  • preparation the exercise documentation,
  • coordination of logistics.

 

Documentation supporting TTX is continuously developed during planning activities. The most important documents to be developed are the TTX scenario and the Situation Manual, prepared in separate versions for different groups of participants.

 

Tabletop Exercise Situation Manual (SM) is the main document prepared to support the TTX conduct, contains the set of the exercise’s instructions and serves as a reference during exercise conduct.

 

When the exercise preparation phase is completed, composition of the EMT can be slightly modified to better respond to the demands and requirements of execution and follow up phases of the TTX, but all core EMT members, including EMT Leader, remain in the team.

ROADMAP - TOWARDS CHEMICAL SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST FOR YEARS 2019 - 2020

Weaponizing toxic chemicals and chemical terrorism pose grave threats to international peace and security, especially in the Middle East, where recent use of industrial chemicals as chemical weapons in Syria and as means of terror in Iraq has been confirmed, posing a fundamental challenge to the peace, security and development of the region and of the international community.

 

The primary chemical threats today come from both state actors and non-state actors operating in areas not controlled by governments. Recent events in North Korea, Russia, Syria, Iraq, the UK, Malaysia, and Australia demonstrate that the chemical threat is all too real, and that the consequences of an attack can be devastating. Experience has shown that no country or industry is immune to terrorism, and that no country or industry can effectively deal with proliferation or terrorism alone. Today, the need to prevent and counter chemical threats is more urgent and relevant than ever.

 

The growth and spread of chemical industry has greatly increased access to toxic chemicals throughout the Middle East. Consequently, safety and security in the production, transportation, and use of chemicals critically important for states, international organizations and industry in the entire region, has become a priority.

 

Although individual countries in the Middle East develop management security activities within the frameworks of national, bilateral and international projects, those efforts may occur not comprehensive due to a multi-faceted and multi stakeholder nature of chemical security threats. The issues such as sealing the borders, chemicals in transit emergency response to road accidents, management of chemicals, chemicals in education, trade control, all require organized and coordinated effort and material assistance, in tailoring legal regulations and adapting chemical security best practices.

 

Jordan, being under continued chemical threat, has developed relevant experience in mitigating CW and Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) threats and has introduced effective international cooperation in these regards.

 

In order to set collective action in motion, an initial proposed priority would be to support the development of Jordan as a regional hub for chemical safety and security. It would be a provider of best practices, capacity building and offer templates for national chemical safety and security programs in the Middle East.

 

The proposed road map promotes national and regional prevention and preparedness against chemical threats through assistance and cooperation in 4 leading areas:

1) To support Chemical Security National-Level Regulatory Framework Development, to prevent, reduce and mitigate chemical threats;

2) To provide assistance in the implementation of international agreements and efforts to reduce chemical threat;.

3) To enhance trans-border cooperation to reduce chemical threats, prevent misuse of chemicals and chemical terrorism;

4) To promote the development and implementation of chemical safety and security confidence building measures for the Middle East, as a foundation for enhancing chemical safety and security culture in the whole chain of activities in chemical and energy carrier activities, including development, production, transportation, transit, storage, use and disposal of chemicals.

 

The proposed Roadmap provides a process of national and international activities accompanied with a series of implementation projects financed by international donors, starting from 2019.

STRATEGY

The Middle East must act collectively through its governments, industries, academia, civil society, media, in coordination with international organizations to respond to the urgency of the situation by implementation of all the relevant treaties and conventions, including the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), UN Security council Resolution 1540 (2004), World Health Organization regulations, Chemical Conventions, and industry measures.

The vision is to further build on and develop the existing national and international capabilities and expertise in chemical domain to be used in the regional and international dimensions, to enhance chemical safety and security in the whole chain of activities in chemicals and energy carriers.

 

The Road Map includes the following stages:

  1. Establishment of a regional network of participants and supporters from Middle East and international partners;
  1. Conduct, in selected countries, national gap analysis with inventory of issues/questions to ensure a practical and result oriented approach in introducing national chemcial safety and secuirty measures;
  1. Development of the Regional Training Framework and background courses in chemical safety and security, including:
    1. Table Top Exercise (TTX) on preventing and preparing for misuse of toxic chemicals and chemical terrorism, and
    2. Full Scale Exercise (FsX): Middle East Chemical Prevention and Response – ME-CHEM-REACT on preventing and preparing for misuse of toxic chemicals and chemical terrorism;
    3. The syllabi of the background training course, including theory and practice, tutorial materials and recommended training equipment, developed, as means to develop and sustain staff for chemical security in whole chain of chemical activities;
  1. Development and implementation of chemical safety and security confidence building measures in the Middle East.

CHEMICAL SAFETY AND SECURITY CONFIDENCE BUILDING MEASURES FOR THE MIDDLE EAST

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The project is funded through the 2018 grant
of the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)