In order to ensure the sustainability and continuity of the program the following 6 stages will be accomplished.
Study visits ensured a strong partnership of the ICCSS and Jordan stakeholders. The project development make the Jordan stakeholders the main beneficiaries and owners of the project. The ICCSS and other international stakeholders have acted as supporters. They fully cooperated with Jordan stakeholders who get convinced that through their work they can improve the situation in their own country.
Study visits included collection of relevant information, sharing best practices and capacity building, conduct training session and exchanges.
The project, in order to ensure a high level of international expertise and gain recognition on regional and international areas, has been developed with a number of international stakeholders. This allowed to create and share unique expertise in chemical security and establishing a sound international cooperation with the Jordan stakeholders. The following organizations will be invited:
The gathering of the international stakeholders was conducted via e-mail exchanges, chats and social media, and participation in the Seminars, in Warsaw and in Amman.
Warsaw-Amman Training and Seminar were prepared primarily by the ICCSS and core team of Jordan stakeholders, who suggest topics for consideration. There were over 60 participants from 16 countries and INTERPOL and OSCE. There were 21 Jordanian representatives from all the key institutions engaged in CBRN issues, with an emphasis on chemical security.
The core purpose of the Warsaw training and Seminar was to enhance the capacity of Jordan stakeholders on matters of chemical safety and security. In order to move forward with the project, the seminar defined content and partners in a gap analysis as well as identified the priority areas that need to be addressed urgently.
Assistance and protection against CW and preparedness to respond against chemical accidents were raised. National legislation and international regulations on CW prohibition and chemical security were presented. The seminar demonstrated a broad overview of relevant CBRN capacities and competences in Jordan.
The core understanding of the Training and the Seminar was the readiness of the Jordan partners and the ICCSS, to use the project to promote Jordan as a regional hub for chemical safety and security and the development of the Joint CBRN Training Facility in Amman as a regional centre for chemical safety and security.
After the successful preparations, gathering stakeholders, discussions and background training, during the first seminar in Warsaw, and obtaining relevant data the next step: preparation of and writing of the document on chemical security gaps and chemical safety and security confidence building measures in the Middles East will be initiated.
It will be a process in which all relevant stakeholders are engaged and there will be a constant flow and exchange of information. A two way communication in verifying the priority areas between Jordan stakeholders and the group of international experts, under the ICCSS supervision, was very effective in preparation of the respective document.
The biggest advantage of this project is that it was the Jordan stakeholders who present the topics they believe to be priorities for their country. The group of international experts assist in the analysis and help Jordan stakeholders to identify their chemical safety and security gaps.
While critical in helping identify chemical security gaps the document shall offer a set of chemical security confidence building measures to assist Jordan and countries in the region in making important, practical decisions about how to address those gaps.
The gap analysis includes the following areas:
The report recommends the development of Jordan as a regional hub for chemical safety and security, including introducing the regional road map chemical safety and security and the introduction of chemical safety and security confidence building measures for the Middle East. These measures will upgrade security procedures and practices in the fields of producing, transporting and marketing chemicals, materials and technologies of dual use, and initiate regional cooperation to mitigate chemical threats.
The development of Jordan as a regional hub will seek to improve coordination between relevant regional entities, national authorities, law enforcement agencies and other stakeholders on improving the border security to prevent illegal movement and transport of chemicals. It will improve national potential to respond to attacks with improvised chemical devices, and enhance a culture of chemical security among the relevant Jordan and regional authorities. It will seek to improve the cross-border cooperation and exchanges. It will also focus on the provision of assistance to Jordan and countries of the region in establishing a credible and sustainable system of border and chemical security culture, which can lead to significant improvements in the overall effectiveness of securing dangerous chemical material, their means of transport and associated facilities.
The issues preliminary identified and presented above will require a coordinated and comprehensive consideration within the following measures:
Effective national chemical safety and security and timely prevention and response to chemical threats requires harmonization with the UNSCR 1540 (2004) and Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the European regulations and practical implementation of the relevant international chemical conventions, including Rotterdam, Basel, Stockholm Conventions, Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), and introduction of efficient control and monitoring mechanisms in the national chemical safety and security system.
In order to reduce the unauthorized access to precursors and prevent production of counterfeit explosive mixtures, national regulations should be introduced to take into consideration (be harmonized) with the UN and European regulations.
This exercise is a core element of the process of developing the coordination among the Jordanian partners and international/neighboring entities with the focus on preventing misuse of toxic chemicals in transborder context. Therefore the Table Top Exercise (TTX) will test and demonstrate the readiness of Jordan stakeholder to respond to chemical threats and to cooperate with the international partners.
It is necessary to remember however that the field of this exercise is only one among the many where terrorism can and should be tackled. The ongoing efforts in the other areas like: education, industry protection, accident preparedness and victims counselling are equally important.
In the case of an act of terrorist nature against targets within chemical industry:
The uncontrolled spread of harmful chemicals represents a threat to national and international stability and security. There is an urgent need for countries to undertake efforts to enhance and expand our efforts to introduce effective national controls of chemicals. An essential component of these efforts should be collaboration of partners to prevent in justified cases from entering harmful chemicals into the territory through borders at sea, in the air, and on land. The goal is to work in concert, employing their national capabilities to develop a broad range of legal, diplomatic, economic, and other tools to prevent shipments of such items.
In certain regional setting legislation and cooperation is aimed at putting into effect preparedness for accidental or deliberate releases of chemicals and for mitigating the effects of such release have acquired a trans-border dimension.
Central to these efforts is a proactive schedule of Table Top Exercise (TTX). TTX will enhance the ability of partners to prevent situations concerning of suspicious transfers chemicals to be used as explosives, including Acetone, or for chemical weapons production and conduct joint operations when and where the situation arises, and will demonstrate our resolve and commitment to stem the suspicious trade or flow of such materials.
The TTX is intended to contribute to the wider efforts to address the danger that non-State actors including terrorists may use CBRN weapons/materials. Its specific focus is on the prevention and response to illegal movement of chemicals. This should lead to enhancement of the chemical security culture in Jordan and to assist national stakeholders in preventing the risks associated with accidental or deliberate releases of chemicals, as well as to promote regional/trans-border cooperation in response to incidents involving such events. It will also contribute to increased preparedness against malicious uses of chemicals and against the growing risks associated with terrorism.
This document presents goals, objectives and all details necessary to carry on the Jordan project’s TTX.
It is necessary to remember however that the field of this exercise is only one among the many where terrorism can and should be tackled. The ongoing efforts in the other areas like: education, industry protection, accident preparedness and victims counseling are equally important.
The TTX results and lessons learnt are intended to create a template for future training in response to the conjoined occurrence of terrorism and the release/malicious use of chemicals, which can be propagated in other countries of the region.
Among the different elements in the process of development of national response to misuse of chemicals, the table top exercise (TTX) occupies a pivotal role. It enables assessment of capability after a partial and/or complete preparation and training programs, by evaluating that knowledge, proficiency and adequacy of practices, procedures, emergency plans, communications and critical thinking and decisions processes are supportive of timely and responsive chemical safety and security actions. The TTX’s utility extends beyond the local Industry and is inclusive of state, public and other private sector entities were their roles, responsibilities, available resources and capabilities are aligned as an integrated whole. In this regard the TTX is tied to each of the different participant groups and their respective training modules. It allows not only the assessment of knowledge acquired by specific groups but also how the entire community whether local or professional, and its acquired knowledge interacts as a well coordinated whole to avoid risks and respond to chemical safety and security incidents. The TTX requires preparation time and resources by both the host and the participants therefore commitment is essential. The successful TTX has a well planned and relevant scenario, attainable goals and objectives, well informed assumptions, enthusiastic participants, a skilled facilitator and evaluation team and a strong emphasis on the evaluation and the post-exercise processes.
The core of methodology is careful, multiple step by step planning. The TTX planning begins with the introductory/preplanning stage by documenting preliminary information such as basic reasoning for the exercise, general goals and expectations with the exercise briefly described. Additionally exercise Team Leader and a small core management team is established to support initial phase of exercise’s preparation. The TTX preparation development is implemented through a series of planning meetings, starting with Concept and
Objectives Meeting establishing TTX Exercise Management Team (EMT), through few working meetings up to Final Planning Meeting:
Documentation supporting TTX is continuously developed during planning activities. The most important documents to be developed are the TTX scenario and the Situation Manual, prepared in separate versions for different groups of participants.
Tabletop Exercise Situation Manual (SM) is the main document prepared to support the TTX conduct, contains the set of the exercise’s instructions and serves as a reference during exercise conduct.
When the exercise preparation phase is completed, composition of the EMT can be slightly modified to better respond to the demands and requirements of execution and follow up phases of the TTX, but all core EMT members, including EMT Leader, remain in the team.
Weaponizing toxic chemicals and chemical terrorism pose grave threats to international peace and security, especially in the Middle East, where recent use of industrial chemicals as chemical weapons in Syria and as means of terror in Iraq has been confirmed, posing a fundamental challenge to the peace, security and development of the region and of the international community.
The primary chemical threats today come from both state actors and non-state actors operating in areas not controlled by governments. Recent events in North Korea, Russia, Syria, Iraq, the UK, Malaysia, and Australia demonstrate that the chemical threat is all too real, and that the consequences of an attack can be devastating. Experience has shown that no country or industry is immune to terrorism, and that no country or industry can effectively deal with proliferation or terrorism alone. Today, the need to prevent and counter chemical threats is more urgent and relevant than ever.
The growth and spread of chemical industry has greatly increased access to toxic chemicals throughout the Middle East. Consequently, safety and security in the production, transportation, and use of chemicals critically important for states, international organizations and industry in the entire region, has become a priority.
Although individual countries in the Middle East develop management security activities within the frameworks of national, bilateral and international projects, those efforts may occur not comprehensive due to a multi-faceted and multi stakeholder nature of chemical security threats. The issues such as sealing the borders, chemicals in transit emergency response to road accidents, management of chemicals, chemicals in education, trade control, all require organized and coordinated effort and material assistance, in tailoring legal regulations and adapting chemical security best practices.
Jordan, being under continued chemical threat, has developed relevant experience in mitigating CW and Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) threats and has introduced effective international cooperation in these regards.
In order to set collective action in motion, an initial proposed priority would be to support the development of Jordan as a regional hub for chemical safety and security. It would be a provider of best practices, capacity building and offer templates for national chemical safety and security programs in the Middle East.
The proposed road map promotes national and regional prevention and preparedness against chemical threats through assistance and cooperation in 4 leading areas:
1) To support Chemical Security National-Level Regulatory Framework Development, to prevent, reduce and mitigate chemical threats;
2) To provide assistance in the implementation of international agreements and efforts to reduce chemical threat;.
3) To enhance trans-border cooperation to reduce chemical threats, prevent misuse of chemicals and chemical terrorism;
4) To promote the development and implementation of chemical safety and security confidence building measures for the Middle East, as a foundation for enhancing chemical safety and security culture in the whole chain of activities in chemical and energy carrier activities, including development, production, transportation, transit, storage, use and disposal of chemicals.
The proposed Roadmap provides a process of national and international activities accompanied with a series of implementation projects financed by international donors, starting from 2019.
The Middle East must act collectively through its governments, industries, academia, civil society, media, in coordination with international organizations to respond to the urgency of the situation by implementation of all the relevant treaties and conventions, including the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), UN Security council Resolution 1540 (2004), World Health Organization regulations, Chemical Conventions, and industry measures.
The vision is to further build on and develop the existing national and international capabilities and expertise in chemical domain to be used in the regional and international dimensions, to enhance chemical safety and security in the whole chain of activities in chemicals and energy carriers.
The Road Map includes the following stages:
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The project is funded through the 2018 grant
of the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)